Researchers took samples of the phenolic compounds found in the five species. They extracted the samples from the seeds, leaves, and pulp of the plants. The phenolic compounds refer to the chemicals that have been found to have curative and anticipatory properties. What antioxidants really combat are the free radicals. These are unpaired electrons produced by oxygen that are not able to bind to another electron. Thats why they are called free. Nature abhors an anomaly so they find other electrons to pair with. This process can cause damage to the DNA, the cells, and the proteins in the body.