The research was conducted at the University of Minnesota and involved 28 participants 14 men and 14 women. They were instructed to consume two test lunches containing a meatloaf made from either beef or beans. The beef meal consisted of 26 grams of protein and three grams of fiber; the bean meal provided 17 grams of protein and 12 grams of fiber. Both meals weighed the same and contained the same amount of total fat and calories.
The researchers discovered:
- All the participants showed no difference in appetite ratings between the beef and bean meals over three hours.
- They consumed the same amount of calories at the next meal eaten.
- Protein is considered to be the number one nutrient that induces the feeling of fullness, with fiber coming in a close second.
- While protein intake releases appetite suppressing hormones, the beneficial effects of fiber on appetite and food include slowing down the digestion process and helping control blood sugar levels to increase the feeling of fullness for longer.
The findings support the idea that plant-based proteins with high fiber may offer similar appetite regulation as animal protein.