Two University of Illinois studies claim that celery, artichokes and the herb Mexican oregano, among others, contain apigenin and luteolin flavonoids that kill human pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting an important enzyme.
Scientists found that apigenin inhibits an enzyme called glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), which leads to a decrease in the production of anti-apoptotic genes in the pancreatic cancer cells. It was discovered that in one of the cancer cell lines the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis meaning that the cancer cell self-destructs because its DNA has been damaged - went from 8.4 percent in cells that had not been treated with the flavonoid to 43.8 percent in cells that had been treated with a 50-micromolar dose. In this case no chemotherapy drug had been added. Treatment with the flavonoid also modified gene expression.
Apigenin alone induced cell death in two aggressive human pancreatic cancer cell lines, but we received the best results when we pre-treated cancer cells with apigenin for 24 hours, then applied the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine for 36 hours," said Elvira de Mejia, a U of I professor of food chemistry and food toxicology.
The trick seemed to be using the flavonoids as a pre-treatment instead of applying them and the chemotherapeutic drug simultaneously, added Jodee Johnson, a doctoral student in de Mejia's lab who has since graduated. "Even though the topic is still controversial, our study indicated that taking antioxidant supplements on the same day as chemotherapeutic drugs may negate the effect of those drugs. That happens because flavonoids can act as antioxidants. One of the ways that chemotherapeutic drugs kill cells is based on their pro-oxidant activity, meaning that flavonoids and chemotherapeutic drugs may compete with each other when they're introduced at the same time," she explained.
The scientists' in vitro study in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research is the first to show that apigenin treatment can lead to an increase in interleukin 17s in pancreatic cells, showing its potential relevance in anti-pancreatic cancer activity. Pancreatic cancer patients would probably not be able to eat enough flavonoid-rich foods to raise blood plasma levels of the flavonoid to an effective level, but scientists could design drugs that would achieve those concentrations, de Mejia added. And prevention of this frightening disease is another story. If you eat a lot of fruits and vegetables throughout your life, you'll have chronic exposure to these bioactive flavonoids, which would certainly help to reduce the risk of cancer.